This is fruit of the base that started if to raise in 1987, when of the birth of the Protocol of Montreal that regulated the substance use that they are harmful to ozone, as the CFC, assisting in the control of the hole in the layer. the result is that the ozone layer, the shield that protects the life in the Land of the harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation, was remained steady in the last decade. One another question must be contemplated in Brazil is the question of its power in terms of energy capacity, with prominence for the discovery of the daily pay-salt, that would have reserves esteem in 34 billion barrels, the quarrels are intensified in the whole world on ' ' poderio' ' Brazilian in the sector, and still, due to production of etanol and the immense reservoir of hydroelectric plants and other renewable power plants, however if cannot consider this as the ready principle to be followed and, therefore he is indispensable to the necessity of investment in clean technologies In the words of the president of the Company of Pesquisa Energtica (EPE), Maurcio Tolmasquim, during the Frum EXAMINATION Energy, carried through in this second (20) in SP Brazil appears with two advantages that give prominence to it in world-wide the energy scene: ' ' renovabilidade' ' of the energy matrix of and the production of etanol. Everything 47% of its composed matrix for sources you renewed, being above average world-wide, that are of 14%. It adds despite the aeolian sector answers for less than 3%, but its generating potential is of 300 a thousand MW, the equivalent the 20 hydroelectric plants of the transport of Itaipu. in regards to production of etanol its potential of growth in the promising future and to be able to take care of to a market dominated for moved vehicles the biocombustvel, fact this that will have to supply the demand in ten years of foreseen 70% of the cars that will have to be flex.
Nuclear energy in fisso In its cycle of life, the nuclear energy still is expensive, not comprovadamente insurance and not necessarily clean. Jose Goldemberg the nuclear energy is only the half one to surpass the catastrophe of the global heating and to create a life way that preserves Gaia. James Lovelock the return of the debate around the safe from use nuclear energy after unchained the accident in the Japanese plant of Fukushima in 11 of March of 2011, goes to change the form of the world to face this type of energy. He makes 25 years that the last great accident occurred? in Chernobyl, the Ukraine (the former-Ussr). As since then it did not have no serious nuclear accident, it seems that the fear passed and would have the new outbreak of this industry, estagnada since the decade of 1980.
The International Agency of Energy? AIE had a projection that 360 the nuclear plants would add gigawatts to the capacity of global energy generation until the year of 2035, but after Fukushima this value suffered one cut from 50%. It has currently for return of 450 nuclear reactors spread by the planet, with useful life measured of operation of 25 years, and 34 countries constructing new plants, between which Brazil. They produce about 15% of the total of world-wide electric energy and are concentrated in U.S.A., France, Japan and countries of the former Soviet Union. It had stagnation and until decrescimento in the Ocidente, but in Asia and Europe East the atomic expansion continues. The necessities of bigger security had excessively increased the costs of construction of plants, that had passed of U$ 400 million in the decade of 1970 for U$ 4 billion in the decade of 1990. To use the fisso or the controlled nuclear rupture as source of heat to turn electric turbines after caused enormous euphoria World War II, with the construction of hundreds of plant until occurring the accident of Three Mile Island, in 1979 in U.S.A.
DEVELOPMENT radiology is an excellent technology for the development of the activities human beings, being indispensable instrument in varies areas of the human work as in hospitals, clinics, companies of photographic revelation among others, to put these institutions they produce residues photochemist that harm the environment respectively and the health of the community. It is demonstrated of utmost importance to search and to analyze the respective photochemist residues and its effluent ones, the process of radiogrfica revelation involves two basic agents, the revealer and the clamp, the revealer suffers irrelevant changes, but the clamp if very becomes dangerous when reacting with the film x-ray and if it contaminates with the silver, in virtue of this a treatment becomes necessary and a manuscript specialized and qualified of these you substantiate. As resolution CONAMA 20: ' ' The limit for discarding must be 0.1 mg/dl' '. In elapsing of radiological process the clamp accumulates silver on average 3g/l, what this very above of the recommendation proposal for the resolution of the CONAMA, therefore this material that possesss one high commercial value can be reaproveitado for other activities, beyond favoring for the preservation of the fauna, flora and humanity, therefore the ingested silver if represents damages due to its cumulative power. The discarding of the silver without any care or procedure is perceivable scientific technician, being this initiative opposes the effective ambient regulation, beyond the cited upheavals already. In accordance with article RDC 306/04 ANVISA: ' ' The revealers used in radiology can be submitted the neutralization process to reach pH between 7 and 9, being later launched in the collecting net of sewer or receiving body, since that they take care of the lines of direction established for the ambient agencies, managing of hdricos resources and sanitation competentes.' ' ' ' The used fixing in radiology can be submitted the process of recovery of the silver or then to be submitted to the constant of the item abaixo' ' ' ' The too much solid residues I contend metals heavy can be directed Aterro de Resduos Dangerous-Classroom I or to be submitted the treatment in accordance with the orientaes of the local agency of environment, in permitted installations for this end.
When great accidents occur, usually they are the governments and the society that the responsibility of the remediation loads heavy, that in Chernobyl already reached estonteantes U$ 235 billion and still it is very far the recovery of the place. This accident, that liberated the least one hundred times more radiation that the launched atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nakasaki, had contaminated an area of the size of Switzerland, transformed the city of Pripyat in an inhospitable place and for more than condemned this region to the wild life 300 years. The ONU says that only after two years of studies and research it will be able to understand all the extension of what it was transferred in Fukushima. The great majority of enormous the nuclear plants demand volumes of water, mainly in the processes of cooling of reactors. Part of this water for times is poured in the oceans, having contaminated local biodiversity. In 2003 the Europe had an intense wave of heat for all, and France, Spain and Germany had had that to close or to reduce the production of some plants, face to the low water levels.
The existing nuclear plants must then completely be reevaluated the bases of the projects in all. To process to an ample revision of the security norms and to decree without mercy the descomissionamento of plant with unsafe technologies and/or useful life in ocaso. Specifically, it is needed to determine if these plants are in fact capable to support all the gamma of disasters that can affect them: technological imperfections, human beings, floods, earthquakes and until acts of terrorism. So that he has an expansion of the nuclear energy, the necessary public to restore the confidence in the nuclear industry. To believe that the operators of the nuclear reactors, are public or private, they adopt rigid standards of security. To trust the capacity of the regulators of the rules of the game to execute adequate supervision; to trust that in fact the technological capacity constructs reactors that surpass the vulnerabilities of the models oldest; that these suffer a rigorous process from relicenciamento.